Thomas Ærvold Bjerre
Southern Gothic is a mode or genre prevalent in literature from the early 19th century to this day. Characteristics of Southern Gothic include the presence of irrational, horrific, and transgressive thoughts, desires, and impulses; grotesque characters; dark humor, and an overall angst-ridden sense of alienation. While related to both the English and American Gothic tradition, Southern Gothic is uniquely rooted in the South’s tensions and aberrations. During the 20th century, Charles Crow has noted, the South became “the principal region of American Gothic” in literature. The Southern Gothic brings to light the extent to which the idyllic vision of the pastoral, agrarian South rests on massive repressions of the region’s historical realities: slavery, racism, and patriarchy. Southern Gothic texts also mark a Freudian return of the repressed: the region’s historical realities take concrete forms in the shape of ghosts that highlight all that has been unsaid in the official version of southern history. Because of its dark and controversial subject matter, literary scholars and critics initially sought to discredit the gothic on a national level. Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) became the first Southern Gothic writer to fully explore the genre’s potential. Many of his best-known poems and short stories, while not placed in a recognizable southern setting, display all the elements that would come to characterize Southern Gothic.
While Poe is a foundational figure in Southern Gothic, William Faulkner (1897–1962) arguably looms the largest. His fictional Yoknapatawpha County was home to the bitter Civil War defeat and the following social, racial, and economic ruptures in the lives of its people. These transformations, and the resulting anxieties felt by Chickasaw Indians, poor whites and blacks, and aristocratic families alike, mark Faulkner’s work as deeply Gothic. On top of this, Faulkner’s complex, modernist, labyrinthine language creates in readers a similarly Gothic sense of uncertainty and alienation. The generation of southern writers after Faulkner continued the exploration of the clashes between Old and New South. Writers like Tennessee Williams (1911–1983), Carson McCullers (1917–1967), and Flannery O’Connor (1925–1964) drew on Gothic elements. O’Connor’s work is particularly steeped in the grotesque, a subgenre of the Gothic. African American writers like Zora Neale Hurston (1891–1960) and Richard Wright have had their own unique perspective on the Southern Gothic and the repressed racial tensions at the heart of the genre. Southern Gothic also frames the bleak and jarringly violent stories by contemporary so-called Rough South writers, such as Cormac McCarthy, Barry Hannah, Dorothy Allison, William Gay, and Ron Rash. A sense of evil lurks in their stories and novels, sometimes taking on the shape of ghosts or living dead, ghouls who haunt the New Casino South and serve as symbolic reminders of the many unresolved issues still burdening the South to this day.
Carolina Alzate and Betty Osorio
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature. Please check back later for the full article.
As with other Western literary traditions, women’s relationship to writing in Latin America had been problematic since the period of early modernity. From colonial times, their emergence on the writing scene as authors went hand in hand with a re-description of the feminine that allowed them to become producers of written culture and to find a decent entry into the public sphere from which they had previously been excluded. Latin American feminine tradition from the 16th through the 20th century may be read as a gradual, heterogeneous, and difficult, but nonetheless sustained and very productive, occupation of new ground. Authorization of their word passes through the reading of the male tradition, the establishment of a female tradition, and the re-description of a subjectivity that would make it possible for them to take up the pen and, eventually, imagine themselves being read by others. Establishing the contents of these women’s libraries, reconstructed through their testimonies of reading in highly illiterate colonial society—especially within the female population—and in 19th century society, in which access to the written word remained restricted, are key elements for the understanding of their writing. Female authorship during the colonial period mainly took the form of religious writing; it was dependent upon the male figure of the confessor, as was the possibility of publishing their life stories and writings. But female authors were not only nuns; and we can find some examples of women who left their mark on writing due to special circumstances (witches, travelers). Male tutelage tended to remain in force throughout the 19th century, but it would eventually become a problem for the women writers of the young independent republics, and newspapers would provide vitally important new spaces for publication. Women’s relationship to newspapers as readers and/or as authors was definitive in this writing tradition, and it would allow them to build reading and editorial networks—within the Americas and across the Atlantic—without which their writing projects cannot be properly understood. Early 20th century female writers would travel, not without difficulty, along the roads paved by the pioneers. With 1936 as a provisional closing date, marked by the beginning of the Spanish Civil War and the preamble to the Second World War, one can think of 20th century literature as one of the forms of the crises of modernity: that which reveals and celebrates heterogeneity and can no longer openly exclude women from the authorized spaces for the production of meaning.